The Synthesis of Existing Assessments of the Legal Environment for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and Philanthropic Support Organizations (PSO) in Mozambique
This is the report for the consultancy on the Assessments of the Legal Environment for Civil Society Actors including Philanthropic Support Organizations in Mozambique. This report is one of the key deliverables to be shared with the project management.
The Legal Environment For Civil Society Actors Including Philanthropic Support Organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
This research focuses on the legal environment for Civil Society Actors (CSAs) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. This research was conducted in a period of great repression against Palestinian civil society organizations and the rights to peaceful gathering and freedom of speech which are a prerequisite for a strong and vibrant civil society. Bisan center which is conducting this research has been targeted by these attacks as in early Thursday 07/29/2021, Israeli occupation forces raided the headquarters of Bisan Center for Research and development, vandalizing offices, breaking the main entrance door, and shattering the doors of offices inside the center, they also rummaged the center and stole office owned equipment and devices. The occupation’s increasing shrinking space for Palestinian CSOs and disregard for CSO rights and jurisdictions has become a routine, and with no official protection of CSOs, the entirety of the Palestinian civil society has become permissible for occupation forces to harass and delegitimize.
SYNTHESIS OF THE EXISTING ASSESSMENTS OF THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS INCLUDING PHILANTHROPY SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS IN ETHIOPIA
CSOs, including International Organizations, began to emerge in the 1960s during the imperial regime with the enactment of the law governing civil society associations (1960 civil code of Ethiopia). Apart from traditional associations, such as iqubs and idirs, other associations are of recent origin.
The traditional forms of civil society in Ethiopia primarily served the interests of their members, rather than those of the general public. Such organizations included traditional community-based organizations like idir and iqub and other informal self-help organizations. Other associations, registered under the 1960 Civil Code, were mainly professional associations such as trade groups and unions which did not play a significant role in the development or public issues. Groups, such as government-supported women’s associations and patriotic groups played a marginal role in their communities.
During the Derg regime (1974-1991) CSOs considerably increased in number as a result of the catastrophic famines of 1973-1974 and in particular 1984-1985. Philanthropy grew in importance and visibility during these famines, both of which caused mass migration and a huge loss of lives and property. This resulted in exponential growth of organizations and faith-based institutions engaging in humanitarian aid. Since the famines, organizations began to engage in development work as well.